September 28, 2023


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As an Australian enterprise proprietor, you could have heard the time period ‘ anti-competitive behaviour’ thrown round within the media and in enterprise circles. However are you aware what anti-competitive behaviour is and the way it can probably have an effect on your small business actions in Australia?

Anti-competitive behaviour can take many types, and whereas some types of competitors are helpful for companies, anti-competitive behaviour can result in important hurt to customers and different companies.

On this article, we’ll clarify what anti-competitive behaviour is, the various kinds of anti-competitive behaviour, how anti-competitive behaviour can impression your small business and solutions to different often requested questions.

Learn alongside!

What’s Anti-Aggressive Behaviour?

In Australia, anti-competitive behaviour refers to behaviours carried out by companies that restrict or stop competitors. This behaviour is illegitimate because the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) (CCA) bans companies from behaving in a manner that damages competitors. The CCA restricts companies from performing anti-competitively by proscribing contracts, understandings, preparations or concerted practices which have the aim, impact or possible impact of considerably lessening competitors in a market.

What’s the market in regard to anti-competitive behaviour?

The time period market was outlined within the authorized case Re Queensland Co−operative Milling Association Ltd., Defiance Holdings Ltd. (Proposed Mergers with Barnes Milling Ltd as an space of shut competitors between corporations or a subject of rivalry between corporations in which there’s substitution between one product and one other, and between one supply of provide and one other, in response to altering costs. A market has 4 parts:

  • Stage of operate
  • Geography
  • Product
  • Time

What Is ‘Considerably Lessening Competitors In The Market’?

Considerably lessening competitors out there is a time period used to explain a scenario the place a enterprise or a number of companies have interaction in conduct that has the impact of decreasing competitors in a specific market to a considerable diploma. The impact of being ‘substantial’ has been outlined in case legislation as being giant, weighty, huge, actual or of substance or not insubstantial, relying on the context. The impact is substantial if it will be important or weighty relative to the dimensions of the actual market.

In Australia, the CCA prohibits conduct that has the aim or impact of considerably lessening competitors in a market. Whether or not a enterprise has considerably lessened competitors is predicated on elements akin to the next:

  • The scale and focus of corporations out there
  • The doorway boundaries for brand new opponents
  • The supply of substitute services or products
  • The diploma of market energy held by the companies concerned

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission have the ability to take enforcement motion in opposition to companies or companies in the event that they decide that the companies or group of companies have considerably lessened competitors out there. 

What are the various kinds of Anti-Aggressive Behaviour?


A Cartel refers to when a gaggle of companies conform to act collectively reasonably than compete with one another. Cartels are unlawful. There are a selection of unfavourable impacts attributable to cartels, together with the next:

  • Wholesome financial progress is restricted
  • Different companies and customers are cheated
  • They trigger costs to be pushed up
  • Cartels brought about a discount in funding and innovation 

Consequently, they keep the phantasm of competitors whereas driving up the income of cartel members. Sure types of anti-competitive conduct which are seen as cartel conduct embody the next:

  • Worth fixing
  • Sharing markets
  • Rigging bids
  • Controlling the output or limiting the variety of items and companies out there to consumers

In keeping with the ACCC, cartels will be composed of companies of all sizes, akin to giant firms, small companies, native companies and cartels will be fashioned between worldwide, nationwide or native companies. The legal guidelines that prohibit cartels are discovered within the CCA, and so they apply to people and all Australian firms which are concerned in such exercise.

Imposing Minimal Resale costs

With reference to minimal resale costs, suppliers are prohibited from setting minimal costs for resale for the products and companies they supply to companies, as that is unlawful for them to take action, in line with the ACCC. 

Due to this fact, suppliers should keep away from doing any of the next:

  • Present retailers with discounted costs for promoting at a value larger than the minimal
  • Prescribe minimal costs as a part of formal agreements or insurance policies  
  • Suppliers shouldn’t discriminate in opposition to retailers who promote beneath the set value, as an illustration, by eradicating reductions or offering a warning
  • Suppliers shouldn’t refuse to provide items to retailers who promote underneath the minimal value
  • Stress companies to be able to cost their set costs; or
  • Stop resellers from promoting, displaying or promoting the provider’s items beneath a specific value

In regard to resellers, it’s unlawful for them to ask suppliers to ask their opponents to promote beneath a minimal value.

Imposing minimal resale value or ‘ resale value upkeep’ is in opposition to the legislation because it prevents retailers from competing on value, which due to this fact results in elevated costs for customers.

Anti-competitive agreements

Anti-competitive agreements are unlawful in accordance with section 45 of the CCA. This part states that agreements that considerably reduce competitors are unlawful. 

Unique Dealings

Unique dealings check with conditions when two companies are buying and selling, and one enterprise imposes restrictions on the liberty of the opposite enterprise in regard to the next:

  • What the opposite enterprise sells or buys
  • Who the opposite enterprise is allowed to conduct enterprise with
  • The place the opposite enterprise is allowed to commerce

The ACCC states that unique dealings are unlawful after they considerably reduce competitors. Due to this fact, it’s authorized if it doesn’t considerably reduce competitors.

Collective Bargaining & Boycotts

Collective bargaining refers to conditions the place opponents come collectively to be able to negotiate with a provider or a buyer over phrases, situations and costs. A collective boycott occurs when a gaggle of opponents resolve to cease shopping for from or promoting to the enterprise that the group is negotiating with. They are going to solely proceed to purchase or promote to the enterprise if the enterprise agrees to the phrases and situations set by the group.

Collective bargaining happens when a gaggle collectively agrees to not:

  • Purchase items or companies from the enterprise or
  • To not provide items or companies to the enterprise

In keeping with the ACCC, collective bargaining is prone to breach Australian Competitors legislation. It is because, basically, competitors legislation states that companies should make their very own choices in regard to phrases, pricing, situations and enterprise companions.

Misuse of market energy

Normally, a enterprise having or utilizing its market energy to be able to outcompete others isn’t unlawful. Nonetheless, it’s unlawful when a enterprise makes use of its market energy for the aim of considerably lessening competitors. When courts are contemplating whether or not there was a misuse of market energy, they take into account the next:

  • Whether or not the enterprise has substantial market energy
  • Whether or not the enterprise is participating in conduct for the aim, impact or possible impact of considerably lessening competitors

When the ACCC is figuring out whether or not a enterprise has substantial market energy, they take into account the next elements:

Cooperation between companies

As a result of competitors being depending on the unbiased choices made by companies, cooperation between companies can probably breach competitors legislation. The ACCC states that considerably lessening competitors by contracts, preparations, or understandings is illegitimate. Moreover, it’s additionally unlawful for companies to create different types of communication or cooperation that considerably reduce competitors, akin to cooperations that don’t contain any understanding, settlement or contract. 

Unconscionable Conduct

This refers to conduct that’s so harsh that it goes in opposition to good conscience. The definition is so common as a result of there isn’t any exact definition of unconscionable conduct by legislation. Unconscionable enterprise behaviour is deemed as behaviour that’s harsh or oppressive and past exhausting industrial bargaining.

Worth Signalling

Worth signalling refers to when companies agree on a hard and fast value as a substitute of competing. This can be a type of cartel conduct and is due to this fact unlawful if it ends in considerably lessened competitors. 

Predatory Pricing

Predatory pricing refers to when a enterprise that has substantial market energy provides a really low value to customers for its items and companies for a protracted time period. Predatory pricing will be unlawful as a result of it has the potential to considerably reduce competitors out there. Predatory pricing goals to attain the next for a enterprise:

  • Inducing opponents to depart the market
  • Punishing or harming opponents that competed aggressively
  • Stopping potential opponents from becoming a member of the market

Predatory pricing is illegitimate in line with Section 46 of the CCA prohibits a company with a considerable diploma of energy in a market from participating in conduct that has the aim or impact of considerably lessening competitors in that or every other market. This contains predatory pricing.

How does the Australian Competitors and Shopper Fee regulate anti-competitive behaviour?

The ACCC does the next to deal with anti-competitive behaviour in Australia:

  • The ACCC investigates probably unlawful anti-competitive behaviour
  • Promotes and protects market competitors
  • The ACCC gives companies with data in regard to their obligations pursuant to the legal guidelines associated to competitors
  • The ACCC enforces the legislation in relation to anti-competitive behaviour by taking motion in opposition to companies breaking the legislation

Nonetheless, you ought to be conscious that the ACCC doesn’t get straight concerned in disputes between companies or present authorized recommendation to companies.

Ceaselessly Requested Questions (FAQs)

Why is aggressive behaviour essential for companies?

Competitors between companies is essential as a result of following optimistic impacts:

  • Because of competitors, companies are compelled to be revolutionary and enhance their effectivity
  • Decrease costs for customers
  • Providers and merchandise of a better normal
  • Shoppers have extra choices
  • A rise in prosperity and welfare for all Australians

How are you going to report anti-competitive behaviour?

Everybody has the power to report anti-competitive enterprise behaviour to the ACCC. The steps on how to make a complaint as a business are outlined by the ACCC. The three steps are as follows:

  1. Contacting the provider in regard to the problems associated to the companies or items which were provided to you. It’s advisable that you simply define the problems that you’ve got with the companies or items in writing
  2. Contacting the ACC or one other third celebration that will help you resolve your problem with the provider. In case your grievance is in regard to unlawful anti-competitive behaviour by one other enterprise, it is best to get in contact with the ACCC. You may also contact the ACCC in regard to points you have got with items which were provided to you in addition to Industry ombudsmen and dispute resolution schemes and state and territory consumer protection agencies
  3. In case your problem continues to be unresolved after contacting the ACCC or one other third celebration, you may take authorized motion. Earlier than you are taking this step, it is best to rent a lawyer for authorized recommendation to see whether or not authorized motion is required. Authorized motion will be costly, and success will not be assured

What behaviour could be thought-about to be authorized?

If your small business behaviour is official, it’s extremely in contrast to that your small business might be breaking the legislation. Competitors on truthful phrases is suitable so long as a enterprise doesn’t prohibit its competitor, whatever the hurt it could trigger to a competitor’s enterprise. The next behaviour could be thought-about to be authorized behaviour in line with the ACCC:

  • Bettering services or products or inventing new ones by investing in analysis
  • Making trustworthy and correct claims in promoting their services or products to be able to achieve clients
  • Decreasing prices by optimising their processes
  • Creating new merchandise that  trigger a market to be disrupted
  • Providing decrease costs in response to cost competitors
  • Beginning a brand new enterprise that’s much like one other enterprise in a close-by location

It’s not unlawful to have interaction in such behaviour as a result of it advantages customers and the economic system.

Are you able to search an exemption from behaviour that may represent as anti-competitive behaviour?

Your online business can search an exemption from behaviour that’s probably anti-competitive and would due to this fact breach competitors legislation from the ACCC. If your small business is supplied with the exemption, it’s shielded from any authorized motion being introduced in opposition to it in relation to the association or conduct. You have to be conscious that the ACCC solely gives exemptions for behaviour that’s within the public’s curiosity and for behaviour that doesn’t considerably reduce competitors.

What are the implications of anti-competitive behaviour?

As a result of anti-competitive behaviour breaching Part IV of the CCA, there are authorized penalties. You have to be conscious that the utmost penalty for a company that breaches Half IV of the CCA is a positive of $50,000,000. Whereas the utmost penalty for a person breaching Half IV is  $2,500,000.

Extra particularly, if a person is discovered to be taking part in a cartel, they’ll withstand 10 years of jail or obtain a positive of as much as 2000 penalty models. If a company is discovered to be taking part in a secondary boycott, it will possibly face penalties of as much as $750,000 


In conclusion, anti-competitive behaviour is illegitimate as a result of it’s unfair to considerably restrict competitors in a market. If you happen to’re involved as a result of a competitor is taking part in anti-competitive behaviour, it is best to rent a lawyer for authorized recommendation to find out whether or not they’re behaving in an anti-competitive method.

Contrastingly, if you’re uncertain whether or not your small business is behaving in an anti-competitive manner, it is best to rent a lawyer for authorized recommendation as a way to keep away from the authorized penalties related to anti-competitive behaviour.

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